Shanghai Jiao Tong University

The Center for Polar and Deep Ocean Development (PDOD), Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), founded in June 2013, has built its strengthen on polar issues and deep seabed mining related subjects. Over the years, PDOD has established its excellence as a comprehensive academic research institute and policy advisory agency collaborating with multidisciplinary departments and research sources within and beyond SJTU, particularly in the fields related to marine sciences, marine technology, marine engineering, equipment and marine social sciences.

Specialized in international law of the sea, PDOD provides research outcomes and expertise on maritime strategy, law and policy for China ocean-related governmental agencies and marine industries. PDOD conducts commissioned projects for drafting and revising national marine laws and regulations, and makes proposals and suggestions for the safeguard of national marine rights and interests. PDOD has contributed to the improvement of national deep seabed mining law and marine related legal systems, and promotion of national maritime strategy.

PDOD has established collaborative partnerships with marine-related research institutions home and abroad, and conducted joint workshops regularly and research projects on latest issues and topics, including the Arctic climate change and its impact, Polar environmental protection, Arctic navigational rights and other legal issues. With a series of academic activities focusing on law of the sea, marine rights and strategy, resources conservation, and environmental protection, PDOD has produced great impact in the academic circle.

In August 2017, SJTU-PDOD became China’s first observer of International Seabed Authority. This observer status has made PDOD possible to participate and voice its views in the law-making process for the deep seabed mining. PDOD will strives to explore possible ways for non-governmental organizations to participate in global governance.

Mailing address:

Shanghai Jiao Tong University

800 Dongchuan RD.

Minhang District



Visit SJTU webpage



Xue Guifang Shanghai Jia

Xue Guifang (Julia)
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Key Experts

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Xue Guifang Shanghai Jia

Xue Guifang (Julia)

Liu Dan

Dan Liu
Associate Research Professor

Relevant Publications

Books in Chinese: 

  • Xue Guifang & Li Yunyi. International protection of marine biodiversity: recent development and prospective progress(in Chinese), Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press, 2019;
  • Xue Guifang & Zhang Guobin. Research on the construction of China's Deep-sea Legal System, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press, 2019;
  • Xue Guifang ed. Law of the Sea Review (Chief Editor, Vol.1-4) (in Chinese), Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press, 2017-2018;
  • Xue Guifang ed. The Law of the Sea (in Chinese), Ocean Press, 2018;
  • Xue Guifang. Studies on Australian Ocean Strategy (in Chinese), Current Affairs Press, 2016;
  • Xue Guifang. The Contest of Blue Ocean: The Big Game of Safeguarding China’s Maritime Rights and Interests (in Chinese), China University of Political Science and Law Press, 2015;
  • Xue Guifang, Hu Zengxiang. The Theory and Practice on the Law of the Sea (in Chinese), Ocean Press of China, 2008;
  • Yu Yifa, Li Yongqi, Ma Yingjie, Xue Guifang, Guo Yuan etc. Studies on the Ocean Law of China (in Chinese), China Ocean University Press, ISBN 978-7-81125-455-6, pp289 (pages contributed: 11-137), 2010.

Papers in Chinese:

  • Xue Guifang. “The Concept of Maritime Community with a Shared Future: The Transition from Consensus Discourse to Institutional Arrangement ——— from the Perspectives of BBNJ Instrumental Consultation”(in Chinese), Law Science Magazine, No. 9, 2021;
  • Xue Guifang. “Strengthening Trend of Marine Environmental Protection Regulations Governing Deep Seabed Mining Activities in the Area and China’s Responses”(in Chinese), Law Science Magazine, No. 5, 2020;
  • Xue Guifang. “Establishing A Cooperative Mechanism by China - ASEAN for the Marine Environmental Protection of the South China Sea: From the View of ‘One Belt One Road’ Initiative” (in Chinese), Journal of Political Science and Law, No. 6, 2019;
  • Xue Guifang. “The New Strategy of "Polar Silk Road" and Its Implementation Path” (in Chinese), Frontiers, No. 11, 2018;
  • Xue Guifang. “Considerations on Improving the Application of PLAN’s Soft Power under the Belt and Road Initiative: From the Perspective of Military Legal Advisers’ Supportive Role for Offshore Operations” (in Chinese), Social Science Journal, No.7, 2018;
  • Xue Guifang, Fang Xu. “Strengthening Extraterritorial Effect of China’s Fishery Law: Maintaining the Image of a Responsible Distant Water Fishing Nation” (in Chinese), Pacific Journal, No.2, 2018;
  • Xue Guifang, Zheng Jie. “Countermeasures for Improving the Ability of Law Enforcement Service in Non-War Military Operations” (in Chinese), Naval Academic Research, No.3, 2018;
  • Xue Guifang, Zheng Jie. “Chinese Overseas Basing Requirements and Risk Response in the 21st Century” (in Chinese), Global review, No.4, 2017;
  • Xue Guifang, Xu Xiangxin. “Adaptive Management in ISA and China’s Response” (in Chinese), Chinese Journal of Maritime Law, No.2, 2017;
  • Xue Guifang. “China’s Strategy to Expand Its Maritime Rights in the Polar Regions” (in Chinese), Frontiers, No.11, 2017;
  • Xue Guifang, Fang Xu. “Accidents Related to China’s Distant Water Fishing Vessels and Measures to Safeguard Their Fishing Safety” (in Chinese), Journal of Guangxi University (Philosophy and Social Science), No.1, 2017;
  • Xue Guifang, Yu Haitao. “The Optimization of Local Marine Administrative System in China” (in Chinese), Marine Environmental Science, No.3, 2016;
  • Xue Guifang, Zheng Jie. “Safeguarding Rights and Interests in the South China Sea: Legal Support of Military Operations Other Than War of the PLA Navy” (in Chinese), Humanities & Social Sciences Journal of Hainan University, No.6, 2015;
  • Xue Guifang, Zheng Jie. “Legal Support of the Australian Navy’s Non-war Military Operations and Its Enlightenment to China” (in Chinese), Naval Academic Research, No.9, 2015;
  • Xue Guifang, Mao Yanzhen. “Study on the Sovereignty of South China Sea Islands and Rocks from the Perspective of Effective Control Principle” (in Chinese), Journal of Guangxi University (Philosophy and Social Science), No.5, 2014;
  • Xue Guifang, Zhang Lei. “On the Impact Climate Change on South China Sea Islands and Rocks and China’s Responses” (in Chinese), Humanities & Social Sciences Journal of Hainan University, No.6, 2013;
  • Xue Guifang. “Challenges and Countermeasures of China’s Ocean Rights and Interests under the New Situation” (in Chinese), Administration Reform, No.7, 2012;
    Xue Guifang, Wang Guanyu. “Australian’s Submission on Extended Continental Shelf and its Implications” (in Chinese), Journal of Ocean University of China (Social Science Edition), No.6, 2009;
  • Xue Guifang. Xiong Xuyuan. “An analysis on the Legal Theories of Establishing Air Identification Zone” (in Chinese), Journal of Ocean University of China (Social Science Edition), No. 6, pp.36-39, 2007;
  • Xue Guifang. Zhan Shan. “Studies on the Australian Maritime Identification System” (in Chinese), Journal of Ocean University of China (Social Science Edition), No. 5, pp.24-26, 2007;
  • Xue Guifang. “The Necessity for Making Laws on Islands of People’s Republic of China” (in Chinese), China Marine Law Review, Vol. 2, pp.73-79, 2006;
  • Xue Guifang. “Achieving China’s Sovereign Rights under the Framework of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea” (in Chinese), Journal of Ocean University of China (Social Science Edition), No.6, pp.13-16, 2005;

Books in English:

  • Xue Guifang, He Liu ed., Law and Governance: Emerging Issues of the Polar Regions, China University of Political Science and Law press/Aug. 2018;
  • Xue Guifang, Zheng Jie ed., The Law of the Sea and Emerging Issues, China Democracy and Legal System Publishing House, 2017;
  • Xue Guifang, Ashley White ed. 30 Years of UNCLOS (1982-2012): Progress and Prospects, China University of Political Science and Law Press, 2013;
  • Xue Guifang. China and International Fisheries Law and Policy, “Publications on Ocean Development”, published by Maritnus Nijhoff Publishers, 2005. ISBN-10: 90 04 14814 0.

Papers in English:

  • Zhao, Y., Pikitch, E. K., Xu, X.,… & Xue, G. J. (2022). An evaluation of management effectiveness of China’s marine protected areas and implications of the 2018 Reform. Marine Policy, 139, 105040.
  • X, Xu & Julia Xue. (2022). Contractors’ Liability and the Sponsoring States’ Role in Enhancing the Liability of the Contractors, The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Part XI Regime and the International Seabed Authority: A Twenty-Five Year Journey (pp.219-233) Publisher: Birll |Nijhoff
  • Xiangxin Xu & Guifang (Julia) Xue (2021) The Environmental Compensation Fund: Bridging Liability Gaps in the Deep Seabed Mining Regime, Coastal Management, 49:6, 557-574, DOI: 10.1080/08920753.2021.1967559
  • Xu,X.;Xue,G.Potential Contribution of Sponsoring State and Its National Legislation to the Deep Seabed Mining Regime. Sustainability 2021,13,10784.
  • Xue Guifang. “Adaptive Management with a Strict Approach and a Broader Concept”, Towards an ISA Environmental Management Strategy for the Area: Report of an International Workshop convened by the German Environment Agency (UBA), Berlin, Germany, ISA Technical Study: No. 17, March, 2017;
  • Xue Guifang. “The Changing Arctic and an Adaptive Approach to the Protection of Arctic Marine Ecosystems”, M. H. Nordquist, et al (eds.), Challenges of the Changing Arctic: Continental Shelf, Navigation, and Fisheries. 19 Center for Oceans, Law and Policy Series, Leiden/Boston: Brill, Nijhoff, 2016;
  • Xue Guifang. “The South China Sea: Competing Claims and Conflict Situations”, The Limits of Maritime Jurisdiction, pp.225-248, 2014;
  • Xue Guifang. “How Much Can a Rock Get - A Reflection from the Okinotorishima Rocks”, China Ocean Law Review, No.1, 2011;
  • Yu, Yifa, Ma Yingjie, Xue Guifang, Guoyuan. “A Preliminary Study on the Drafting of Ocean Law in Dongyue Forum”, Issue 8, Vol. 31, pp.163-167, 2010;
  • Xue Guifang. “China and the Law of the Sea: A Sino-U.S. Maritime Cooperation Perspective”, in China, the United State and 21st Century Sea Power: defining a Maritime Security Partnership, ed. By Andrew S. Erickson, Lyle J. Goldstein, and Nan Li, Annapolis, Maryland, USA. pp.175-196, 2010;
  • Xue Guifang. “China and United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: An Update”, in International Law and Military Operations,ed. by M. D. Carsten, International Law Students, U.S Naval War College, Vol. 84, pp.97-110, 2009;
  • Xue Guifang. “Marine Scientific Research and Hydrographic Survey in the EEZ: to Close Up the Legal Loophole” in Freedom of Seas, Passage Rights and the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention, ed. by M. H. Nordquist, T. T. B. Koh, & J. N Moore, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden/Boston, pp.209-226, 2009;
  • Xue Guifang. “Capacity Building for Integrated Ocean Management: A Chinese Perspective”, in Law, Science and Ocean Management, ed. by Myron Nordquist, Ronan Long, Tomas H. Heidar, and John Norton Moore, Martinus Mijhoff Publishers, Leiden/Boston, pp.403-435, 2007;
  • Xue Guifang. “Improved Fisheries Cooperation: Sino-Vietnamese Fisheries Agreement for the Gulf of Tonkin”, International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp.217-234, 2006;
  • Xue Guifang. “China’s Distant Water Fisheries and its Response to Flag State Responsibilities”, Marine Policy, Vol. 30, pp.651-658, 2006;
  • Xue Guifang. “Bilateral Fisheries Agreements for the Cooperative Management of Shared Resources of the China Seas: A Note”, Ocean Development and International Law, Vol. 36, pp.369-381, 2005.